Sécheresse hivernale : l’état des nappes phréatiques dans les départements français

La sécheresse hivernale qui a frappé la France a laissé des conséquences alarmantes sur la situation des nappes phréatiques dans les différents départements du pays. Avec une sécheresse historique en été 2022 et un hiver sans pluie ou presque, les nappes phréatiques n’ont pas pu se remplir normalement ces dernières semaines. Le gouvernement a déjà appelé les préfets à « anticiper et planifier » des mesures de restrictions nécessaires. Selon le site Info Sécheresse, qui dispose de 1 800 stations dans les 442 nappes phréatiques de la France, 32 départements sont à un niveau très bas.

Situation des nappes phréatiques dans les départements français

La carte de la situation des nappes phréatiques dans les départements français indique une situation préoccupante pour 32 départements. La situation dans le centre du pays est extrêmement préoccupante, mais la pointe bretonne et l’est de la France ne sont pas épargnés pour autant. Seuls deux départements, le Tarn et le Tarn-et-Garonne, sont à un « niveau modérément haut », tandis que la Seine-et-Marne, les Hautes-Alpes, les Pyrénées-Atlantiques et les Hautes-Pyrénées sont à un « niveau proche de la moyenne. »

Conséquences de la sécheresse hivernale

Entre le 21 janvier et le 21 février 2023, la France n’a pas connu de véritable pluie – le cumul des précipitations étant inférieur à 1 mm. Cela représente 32 jours sans pluie, un record depuis le début des mesures selon Météo France. Cinq départements ont appliqué des restrictions depuis le lundi 27 février 2023 : Ain, Bouches-du-Rhône, Isère, Pyrénées-Orientales et Var. Si la situation pluviométrique ne s’inverse pas, l’été pourrait être difficile à passer, d’autant plus que l’enneigement des Alpes et des Pyrénées est nettement inférieur à la normale saisonnière.

Prévisions météorologiques et plan de sobriété de l’eau

Les premières prévisions météorologiques laissent présager de la pluie pour le début de la semaine prochaine, mais la pluviométrie des trois prochains mois (mars, avril, mai) sera déterminante pour la situation des nappes phréatiques. Face à cette situation, le président Emmanuel Macron a appelé à « un plan de sobriété de l’eau » lors de sa visite au Salon de l’Agriculture, samedi 25 février. Il est essentiel de prendre dès maintenant des mesures pour économiser l’eau et de planifier des restrictions pour s’assurer que la ressource en eau soit préservée pour cet été.

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